DESHIDRATACION ISOTONICA PDF

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From dehydration to hyperhidration isotonic and diuretic drinks and hyperhydratant aids in sport. Public Center for Teaching Sports. Basque Government 2 Department of Physiology. Faculty of Pharmacy. The needs of water and electrolytes are quite variants, depending on age, physiological or environmental conditions.

On the contrary, hyperhydration can be dangerous and is associated with hyponatremia that can cause cerebral edema or respiratory failure. Sports drinks should moisturize, providing minerals and carbohydrates and increase the absorption of water by an ideal combination of salts and sugars. Therefore, it is important to provide correct hydration-protocols before, during and after physical activity, as well as know possible limitations of the sport. Key words: Hydration. Diuretic drinks.

The need of water and electrolytes vary according to age, physiological or environmental conditions. Water is an essential part of the body fluids and the means of transport of substances, is part of various bodily secretions and is the medium where biochemical reactions occur.

From the standpoint of digestive physiology it attends multiple processes and regulates body temperature. The main functions of water in relation to physical activity are: transport of oxygen to tissues, hormones and nutrients as well as carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes; containing blood pH buffering agents, and helps dissipate heat. Individuals with less body water women, obese, elderly have increased risk of dehydration and should control more their hydration. Thus, subjects with more fat, less water will.

However, long-term sports marathon, triathlon We have also obtained documents with the search engine "Google Scholar" and a snowball strategy, in order to get more items. Search was done between the years , integrating other relevant articles through the snowball search strategy.

It reduces plasma volume, increases heart rate HR decreases blood flow to the skin, sweating and heat dissipation is reduced and body temperature increases by 1 o C, and when it reaches 39 o C, performance fell drastically by a malfunction of energy production and neuropsychological impairment.

Thus we can classify the effects of dehydration levels table I. It increases cortisol and consequently the same load of exercise may prove more fatiguing. On the other hand, hyperhydration common in endurance races can also be hazardous, 10 being associated with hyponatremia. It can cause cerebral edema or respiratory failure.

It is treated with hypertonic beverages, as those used after sporting events 12 and with proper heat acclimatization for days training in hot and high humidity environments.

Knechtle B et al. Cyclists ingested 0. In sports of short duration, such as those of high intensity force, dehydration reduces the ability of the central nervous system to stimulate muscle contraction. In turn, in swimmers, we observe differences in respect to other water sports. If the water temperature is below that of the body, sweat loss is smaller. Water and electrolyte needs in sport It is important to know where the hydric losses and intakes come from.

Among the daily losses we have urine L , sweat 0,1 L , transpiration 0,3 L and faeces 0,1 L. Water taken L , comes from drinks L , food 1,6 L and metabolic water 0,4 L. The water needs depend on the intensity of the activity and thermal stress, 0.

It is difficult to assess the needs of each group or individual, as they vary a lot even in the same individual depending on several factors such as environmental conditions and physical activity.

In sports, to dissipate heat it occurs mainly through sweating, not to mention losses due to hyperventilation. In the sporting context electrolytes are critical table II. Lower temperatures 10 o C slow the absorption of the beverage and above 20 o C are not desirable. It is important to maintain proper temperature of the drink, especially in hot environments being able to use ice cubes and keep it cool and appetizing as well.

There are diuretic beverages, such as alcohol. As beer has a high glycemic index, it could help the recovery of muscle glycogen postexercise, but sports drinks are more appropriate to have a correct osmolarity, salt concentration and optimal HC. However, according to Maughan et al. According to Del Coso et al. But these effects diminished if taken with isotonic drink, not affecting an exercise of 2 h at 36 o C, thus its effects could only be observed in very long distance races and not exposed to heat.

Nor has the diuretic effect of tea on regular users been found, and yet it seems to improve mood. The hydration protocol table III must be individualized to each sport, environmental conditions and needs.

This should be investigated in each team-athlete the loss of water and Na, under given conditions. Another strategy is to increase the use of Hyperhidrant moisturizing agents table IV.

Noakes TD. Commentary: role of hydration in health and exercise. BMJ ; e Body Composition Variations in Ageing. Coll Antropol ; 35 1 : Hypohydration does not impair skeletal muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise.

J Appl Physiol ; Medicina de l'Esport ; 46 : Effect of beverage glucose and sodium content on fluid delivery. Nutrition and metabolism ; 6: 9. Exercise, heat, hydration and the brain. Responses of motor-sport athletes to v8 supercar racing in hot conditions. Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 2 2 : Influence of hydration on physiological function and performance during trail running in the heat. J Athl Train ; 45 2 : Effect of hydration state on testosterone and cortisol responses to training-intensity exercise in collegiate runners.

Int J Sports Med ; 27 10 : Higher prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in female than in male open-water ultra-endurance swimmers: the "Marathon-Swim" in Lake Zurich. Eur J Appl Physiol ; 3 : Hyponatremia and physical exercise. Clin Ter ; 5 : ee Stuempfle KJ. Exercise-associated hyponatremia during winter sports. Phys Sportsmed ; 38 1 : Hyponatremia in the km Western States Endurance Run.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 7 1 : No case of exercise-associated hyponatremia in male ultra-endurance mountain bikers in the "Swiss Bike Masters". Chin J Physiol ; 54 6 : Effect of hydration state on strength, power, and resistance exercise performance. Med Sci Sport Exerc ; J Strength Cond Res ; Thermal responses and body fluid balance of competitive male swimmers during a training session.

J Strength Cond Res ; 17 2 : Water and salt balance of well-trained swimmers in training. Requerimientos y tipos de agua de bebida. Anales de Ciencias de la Salud ; 9: Consenso sobre bebidas para el deportista. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte ; Exercise and Fluid Replacement. Special Communications. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; Valencia: Universitat de Valencia; Murray B.

Hydration and physical performance. Jeukendrup AE. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling. J Sports Sci ; 29 1 : SS Nutritional intake and gastrointestinal problems during competitive endurance events.

Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 44 2 : Rehrer NJ. Fluid and electrolyte balance in ultraendurance sport.

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