He is not allowed to stir fOr several hours. Is that all? Yes, that's all. Just try it yourself!
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He is not allowed to stir fOr several hours. Is that all? Yes, that's all. Just try it yourself! Depending on local conditions, a divisional pit can be substituted for the box, as was done in the Gorokhovets army camps during World War II. The prisoner was pushed into such a pit, ten feet in depth, six and a half feet in diameter; and beneath the open sky, rain or shine, this pit was for several days both his cell and his latrine. And ten and a half ounces of bread, and water, were lowered to him on a cord.
Imagine yourself in this situation just after you've been arrested, when you're all in a boil. Either identical orders to all Special Branches of the Red Army or else the similarities of their situations in the field led to broad use of this method. Thus, in the 36th Motorized In- fantry Division, a unit which took part in the battIe of Khalkhin- Gol, and which was encamped in the Mongolian desert in , a newly arrested prisoner was, without explanation, given a spade by Chief of the Special Branch Samulyev and ordered to dig a pit the exact dimensions of a grave.
Here is a hybridiza- tion of physical and psychological methods. When the prisoner had dug deeper than his own waist, they ordered him to stop and sit down on the bottom: his head was no longer visible. One guard kept watch over several such pits and it was as though he were surrounded by empty space. The ration they gave was three and a half ounces of bread per day and one glass of water.
Lieutenant Chulpenyev, a giant, a boxer, twenty-one years old, spent a month imprisoned this way. Within ten days he was swarming with lice. After fifteen days he was summoned to interrogation for the first time.
This, evidently, is a Mongolian theme. In the magazine Niva March 15, , p. A jailer patrols between the trunks. The Interrogation I The accused could be compelled to stand on his knees-- not in some figurative sense, but literally: on his knees, without sitting back on his heels, and with his back upright. People could be compelled to kneel in the interrogator's office or the corridor for twelve, or even twenty-four or forty-eight hours.
The interrogator himself could go home, sleep, amuse himself in one way or another-this was an organized system; watch was kept over the kneeling prisoner, and the guards worked in shifts. One already broken, already inclined to surrender.
It was also a good method to use with women. Ivanov-Razumnik reports a variation of it: Having set young Lordkipanidze on his knees, the interrogator urinated in his face! And what happened? Unbroken by anything else, Lordkipanidze was broken by this. Which shows that the method also worked well on proud people Then there is the method of simply compelling a prisoner to stand there. This can be arranged so that the accused stands only while being interrogated-because that, too, exhausts and breaks a person down.
It can be set up in another way-so that the prisoner sits down during interrogation but is forced to stand up between interrogations. A watch is set over him, and the guards see to it that he doesn't lean against the wall, and if he goes to sleep and falls over he is given a kick and straightened up. During all 'these tortures which involved standing for three, four, and five days, they ordinarily deprived a person of water.
The most natural thing of. It is also natural to combine all the pre- ceding methods with: Sleeplessness, which they quite failed to appreciate in medieval times. That, after all, is how somebody's career was launched--standing guard over a prisoner on his knees. And now, in all probability, thatBOlIlebody has attained high rank :and his children are already grown up.
Sleeplessness yes, combined with standing, thirst, bright light, terror, and the unknown-what other tortures are needed!? A person deprived of sleep acts half-unconsciously or altogether uncon- sciously, so that his testimony cannot be held against him. The jailer on duty sat next to him on the same sofa and kicked him every time his eyes began to shut.
Irises of the eyes dried out as if someone were holding a red-hot iron in front of them. Tongue swollen from thirst and prickling as from a hedgehog at the slightest movement. Throat racked by spasms of swallowing. Well, after all, this is not supposed to be a vacation resort.
The Security officials were awake too! One can say that sleeplessness became the universal method in the Organs. From being one among many tortures, it became an integral part of the system of State Security; it was the cheapest possible Just picture a foreigner, who knows no Russian, in this muddled state, being given something to sign. Under these conditions the Bavarian Jupp Aschen- brenner signed a document admitting that he had worked on wartime gas vans.
It was not until , in camp, that he was finally able to prove that at the time he had been in Munich, studying to become an electric welder.
Inspection, by the way, was so totally impossible and had so emphatically never taken place that in , when real inspectors entered the cell of former Minister of State Security Abakumov, himself a prisoner by that time, he roared with laughter, thinking their appearance was a trick intended to confuse him.
The Interrogation I method and did not require the posting of sentries. In all the interrogation prisons the prisoners were forbidden to sleep even one minute from reveille till taps. In Sukhanovka and several other prisons used specifically for interrogation, the cot was folded into the wall during the day; in others, the prisoners were simply forbidden to lie down, and even to close their eyes while seated.
Since the major interrogations were all conducted at night, it was automatic: whoever was undergoing interrogation got no sleep for at least five days and nights. Saturday and Sun- day nights, the interrogators themselves tried.
O Arquipélago Gulag (Alexandr Solzhenitsyn)
It was first published in , followed by an English translation the following year. It covers life in what is often known as the Gulag , the Communist Soviet forced labour camp system, through a narrative constructed from various sources including reports, interviews, statements, diaries, legal documents, and Solzhenitsyn's own experience as a Gulag prisoner. Following its publication, the book initially circulated in samizdat underground publication in the Soviet Union until its appearance in the literary journal Novy Mir in , in which a third of the work was published in three issues. An abridged fiftieth anniversary edition was released on 1 November with a new foreword by Jordan Peterson. Structurally, the text comprises seven sections divided in most printed editions into three volumes: parts 1—2, parts 3—4, and parts 5—7.
Search results for The Gulag Archipelago 1918-1956 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Wilson T. Why did Vintage Classics make the baffling decision to ask controversial psychologist Jordan Peterson to write the foreword to a reprint of the s classic The Gulag Archipelago? Last year, Vintage Classics a division of Penguin U. The monumental book about the Communist Soviet forced labour camp system has been republished and reprinted multiple times and translated into many languages. Why did Vintage Classics ask Peterson, who is a professor of psychology based at the University of Toronto, to write the intro? And why did he actually write it? Peterson has no training in the study of the Gulag or in Russian history.