Shumattiyyah — Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was raised by Ali, but was not his son. Despite his wide-ranging attributions in a number religious disciplines, no works penned by Ja'far himself remain extant. Al-Sadiq was born in either or CE. He inherited the position of imam from his father in his mid-thirties.
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Shumattiyyah — Muhammad ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was raised by Ali, but was not his son. Despite his wide-ranging attributions in a number religious disciplines, no works penned by Ja'far himself remain extant. Al-Sadiq was born in either or CE.
He inherited the position of imam from his father in his mid-thirties. In addition to his connection with Sunni schools of Sunni jurisprudence,  he was a significant figure in the formulation of Shia doctrine. The traditions recorded from al-Sadiq are said to be more numerous than all hadiths recorded from all other Shia imams combined.
The first group became known as the Ismailis and the second, larger, group was named Ja'fari or the Twelvers. On his father's side, he was a great-great grandson of Ali and Fatimah. His mother, Farwah bint al-Qasim , was a great-granddaughter of Abu Bakr. However, Shi'ites believed that the previous caliphs, by taking over control of the Islamic Empire, had unlawfully unseated Ali, and that he was the rightful heir to the caliphate. He also noted the respect that the famous jurists of Medina held toward Zayn al-Abedin in spite of his few followers.
In his mother's house, al-Sadiq also interacted with his grandfather Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr , who was respected by the people of Medina as a famous traditionalist. During this period, Umayyad power was at its climax, and the childhood of al-Sadiq was coincided with the growing interest of the people of Medina in prophetic science and interpretations of the Quran. Al-Sadiq was thirty-four or thirty-seven when he inherited the position of Imamah or Imamate upon the death of his father Muhammad al-Baqir.
He held the Imamate for 28 years, longer than any other Shi'ite Imam. Prior to al-Sadiq, the majority of Shi'ites had preferred the revolutionary politics of Zaid his uncle to the mystical quietism of his father and grandfather. This knowledge was passed down from the Islamic Prophet Muhammad through the line of Ali's immediate descendants.
The doctrine of Nass or "divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam", therefore, was completed by al-Sadiq. Al-Sadiq's Imamate extended over the latter half of the Umayyad Caliphate , which was marked by many revolts mostly by Shi'ite movements , and eventually the violent overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate by the Abbasids, descendants of Muhammad's uncle Al-'Abbas. Al-Sadiq maintained his father's policy of quietism, and played no part in the numerous rebellions.
He stayed out of the uprising of Zaydits who gathered around his uncle Zayd, who had the support Mu'tazilites and the traditionalists of Medina and Kufa. Al-Sadiq asked for a lamp and burned Abu Muslim's letter, saying to the envoy who brought it, "Tell your master what you have seen.
He had said that even though he, as the designated Imam, was the true leader of the Ummah , he would not press his claim to the caliphate. The end of the Umayyad dynasty and beginning of the Abbasid was a period during which central authority was weak, allowing al-Sadiq to teach freely in a school which trained about four thousand students. A school of this size was unusual for religious teachers at this time.
After the Abbasid revolution had overthrown the Umayyad caliphate, it turned against Shi'ite groups who had previously been its allies against the Umayyads. The new Abbasid rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their descent from Muhammad's uncle Al-'Abbas, were suspicious of al-Sadiq, because Shi'ites had always believed that leadership of the Ummah was a position issued by divine order, and which was given to each imam by the previous imam. In addition, al-Sadiq had a large following, both among scholars and among those who believed him to be the imam.
Al-Sadiq, however, asked the Caliph to excuse him from going there by reciting a hadith which said that "the man who goes away to make a living will achieve his purpose, but he who sticks to his family will prolong his life. After the defeat and death of his cousin Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyyah in , however, al-Sadiq thought it advisable to obey Al-Mansur's summons.
After a short stay in Baghdad, however, he convinced the Caliph that he was not a threat, and was allowed to return to Medina. Toward the end of his life, he was subject to some harassment by the Abbasid caliphs. The governor of Medina was instructed by the Caliph to burn down his house, an event which reportedly did al-Sadiq no harm. She was revered by the Shi'ites, especially by women, for her wisdom. She was known as Hamidah the Pure. Ja'far al-Sadiq used to send women to learn the tenets of Islam from her, said that "Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the ingot of pure gold.
He was particularly seen as a threat by the newly minted Abbasids who felt challenge by his strong claim to the title of caliph. Al-Sadiq's death led to uncertainty about the succession of the Imamate. It was then that the Wahhabis under the leadership of Ibn Saud , the founding King of Saudi Arabia , conquered Medina for the second time, and razed the tomb because of the prohibition of tombs by the Prophet, along with all other prominent Islamic shrines, with the exception of that of the prophet Muhammad himself.
According to Tabatabai upon hearing the news of al-Sadiq's death, Mansur wanted to put an end to the Imamate. Mansur reportedly wrote to the governor of Medina, commanding him to read the imam's testament, and to behead the person named in it as the future imam.
However, the governor found that al-Sadiq had chosen four people rather than one: Mansur himself, the governor, the Imam's oldest son Abdullah al-Aftah, and Musa al-Kazim, his younger son. The Shi'ite group had begun to split during the lifetime of al-Sadiq, when his eldest son Isma'il ibn Jafar reportedly predeceased him, in the presence of many witnesses. Another group believed instead that Isma'il had been designated as the next Imam, and that since he had predeceased his father, the Imamate had passed to Isma'il's son Muhammad ibn Ismail and his descendants.
This latter group became known as the Isma'ilis. Some Isma'ilis believe that Isma'il had not actually died, but would reappear as Mahdi , the rejuvenator of Islam in the Shi'ite doctrine. A final group believed that al-Sadiq had been the last imam, and that the lineage had not continued.
After the death of Musa al-Kazim, the majority of his followers recognized his son Ali al-Ridha as the eighth imam, while others believed that al-Kazim had been the last imam. This latter group became known as the Waqifiyah. No major divisions occurred in Shiaism from the eighth to the twelfth imam, whom the majority of the Shia Twelvers considered to be Muhammad al-Mahdi. Among the sects which separated from the majority, only Zaidiyyah and Ismaili continue to exist today.
Al-Sadiq religious views are recorded as authority in the writing of number of contradictory positions. The use of his name as an authority within the Sufi , scientific, Sunni legal, Ismaili and extremist writings shows his importance as a figure within the development of early Muslim thought.
Muhammad himself told me that…" the same is reported from Abu Hanifa. Shia jurisprudence became known as Ja'fari jurisprudence after Ja'far al-Sadiq, whose legal dicta were the most important source of Shia law. Like Sunni law, Ja'fari jurisprudence is based on the Quran and the Hadith , and also based on the consensus Ijma. Unlike the Sunnis, Shias give more weight to reasoning 'Aql , while Sunnis only allow for a kind of analogical reasoning Qiyas.
Instead al-Sadiq recommends an unofficial system of justice for the community, and that the disputants should turn to "those who relate our [i. And Sufism — Encyclopaedia Iranica.
Ja'far Al-Sadiq holds a special prominence among Sufi orders due to his claimed connections to some of Sufism's earliest theologians. While is as apparent in these writings that Ja'far al-sadiq was regarded as a founding figure in Sufism, the historical situation is more difficult to ascertain. Given his large following and established school madrasa , he almost certainly was a teacher to "proto-sufis. They said,'Son of the Prophet of God, this is not in accord with the life of your holy family.
This verse shows us that Ja'far was viewed by Sufi sources as processing a humbleness and inner piety that was a cornerstone of malamatiyya thought.
The malamatiyya were closely associated with the Sufis, and these two mystical traditions had, in many ways, been blended by the time of 'Attar. What can be said is that Sufi teachers often traced the source of their knowledge back to the teaching of Al-Sadiq and that perceived content of these teaching remain relevant to Sufi practice today . Ja'far al-Sadiq's view on theology is transmitted through Mufazzel who recorded his own questions and al-Sadiq's answers in a book known as Ketab al-Tawhid in which al-Sadiq gives proofs as the unity of God.
Whoever claims that both good and evil are attributed to him, has lied about God". This view which is accordance with that of Mu'tazilite doctrine seems to absolve God from the responsibility for evil in the world. Al-Sadiq says that God does not "order created beings to do something without providing for them a means of not doing it, though they do not do it, or not do it without God's permission". Al-Sadiq expressed a moderate view between compulsion Jabr , and giving the choice to man Tafviz , stating that God decreed some things absolutely, but left some others to human agency.
This assertion was widely adopted afterwards and was called "al-amr bayn al-amrayn" which meant" neither predestination nor delegation but a position between the two. The interlocutor asks if God forces his servants to do evil or whether he has delegated power to them. Al-Sadiq's answers negatively to both questions. When asked "What then? It is narrated in hadith that Ja'far al-Sadiq has said "We are the people well-grounded in knowledge and we are the ones who know how to interpret it.
The attribution of these works to al-Sadiq, however, is suspected. He said that "The Book of God comprises four things: the statement set down, the implied purport, the hidden meanings, relating to the supra-sensible world, and the exalted spiritual doctrines. Al-Sadiq adopted Taqiyyah as a defensive tool against the violence and threats that were directed against him and the Shias. It is probable that al-Sadiq was an author who left the writing to his students.
Al-Dhahabi recognizes his contribution to Sunni tradition and Isma'ili scholars such as Qadi al-Nu'man  recorded his traditions in their work. There are many reports attributed to him in the early Shia Hadith collections such as Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni 's Kitab al-Kafi , where they are featured as central sources of Imami doctrine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Medina , Hejaz , Umayyad Empire.
Medina, Abbasid Empire. Beliefs and practices. Holy days. Ahl al-Kisa. Muhammad Ali Fatimah Hasan Husayn. Holy women. See also: Imamah Shia doctrine. See also: Taqiyyah. Ancestors of Ja'far al-Sadiq 8. Husayn ibn Ali 4. Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin 9. Shahrbanu 2. Muhammad al-Baqir Hasan ibn Ali 5.
Kayani, based on Qur'an and Sunnah]. About The Book. Fiqh-us-Sunnah is not based on a particular Madhab, the author gives opinions from the scholars other madhabs, judging each opinion on its own merits. Sayyid Sabiq C. Every Fiqh ruling in the book goes back to the Qur'an and Sunnah and Sabiq dealt with all four madhahib objectively, with no preferential treatment to any. It provides valuable information concretely based on Qur'an and Sunnah. The Author presents hadith evidences for rulings corresponding to about 95 percent of those of the Shafi'i school.
Books by Muhammad As-Sayyid Sabiq
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Schools of Islamic theology